AskDefine | Define although

Dictionary Definition

although adv : despite the fact that; "even though she knew the answer, she did not respond" [syn: though, tho']

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

  • (US)
    • /ɑlˈðoʊ/
    • /Al"DoU/
  • Rhymes: -əʊ

Etymology

althagh

Conjunction

  1. in spite of (the fact that...)
    Although it was very muddy, the football game went on.
  2. but, except that

Usage notes

  • When conjunctions, the words "although" and "though" are generally interchangeable:
    Although she smiled, she was angry. = Though she smiled, she was angry.
  • "Although" is usually placed at the beginning of its clause, whereas "though" may occur elsewhere and is the more common term when used to link words or phrases (as in "wiser though poorer"). In certain constructions, only "though" is acceptable:
    Fond though I am of sports, I'd rather not sit through another basketball game.

Synonyms

Related terms

Translations

in spite of
but

See also

Extensive Definition

In logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions. It occurs when the propositions, taken together, yield two conclusions which form the logical inversions of each other. Illustrating a general tendency in applied logic, Aristotle’s law of noncontradiction states that “One cannot say of something that it is and that it is not in the same respect and at the same time.”
By extension, outside of formal logic, one can speak of contradictions between actions when one presumes that their motives contradict each other.

Contradiction in formal logic

In formal logic, particularly in propositional and first-order logic, a proposition \varphi is a contradiction if and only if \varphi\vdash\bot. Since for contradictory \varphi it is true that \vdash\varphi\rightarrow\psi for all \psi (because \varphi\rightarrow\bot\rightarrow\psi), one may prove any proposition from a set of axioms which contains contradictions.

Contradictions and philosophy

Adherents of the epistemological theory of coherentism typically claim that as a necessary condition of the justification of a belief, that belief must form a part of a logically non-contradictory (consistent) system of beliefs. Some dialetheists, including Graham Priest, have argued that coherence may not require consistency.

Pragmatic contradictions

Pragmatic contradictions often occur in philosophy that the very presence of the argument contradicts the claims of the argument. An inconsistency arising because of the normal implications of saying something, rather than because of the content of what is said. For examples, Heraclitus’s proposition that knowledge is impossible; or, arguably, Nietzsche’s statement that one should not obey others, or moore's paradox. These are self-refuting statements and performative contradictions.

Contradiction outside formal logic

Colloquial usage can label actions or statements (or both) as contradicting each other when due (or perceived as due) to presuppositions which are contradictory in the logical sense.
In dialectical materialism, contradiction, as derived by Karl Marx from Hegelianism, usually refers to an opposition of social forces. Most prominently (according to Marx), capitalism entails a social system that has contradictions because the social classes have conflicting collective goals. These contradictions stem from the social structure of society and inherently lead to class conflict, economic crisis, and eventually revolution, the existing order’s overthrow and the formerly oppressed classes’ ascension to political power.
Mao Zedong's philosophical essay furthered Marx and Lenin's thesis and suggested that all existence is the result of contradiction.

References

External links

although in Persian: تناقض
although in German: Kontradiktion
although in French: Contradiction
although in Korean: 모순
although in Icelandic: Mótsögn
although in Lithuanian: Prieštaravimas
although in Macedonian: Контрадикција
although in Dutch: Contradictie
although in Japanese: 矛盾
although in Norwegian: Selvmotsigelse
although in Polish: Sprzeczność
although in Portuguese: Contradição
although in Russian: Противоречие
although in Swedish: Motsägelse
although in Chinese: 矛盾

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

after all, again, albeit, all the same, at all events, at any rate, but, even, even so, for all that, howbeit, however, in any case, in any event, just the same, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, rather, still, though, when, whereas, while, yet
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